The PEPFAR Gender Initiative on Girls’ Vulnerability to HIV (GIGV), the first award under the HIV/AIDS Research Sector TASC 3 IQC, was funded by USAID. Known as the Go Girls! Initiative (GGI), the project was led by CCP in partnership with Macro International. The Initiative shifted the focus from individual risk-taking to contextual factors that render girls vulnerable. The purpose of GGI was to develop, implement and test social, gender and behavior change communication approaches, in an effort to reduce adolescent girls’ susceptibility to HIV infection. Approaches included: addressing contextual factors that present barriers to accessing education; increasing girls resilience through building life-skills; strengthening parents’ and other adults ‘ability to communicate with and support girls; and community dialogue and action. The CCP teams in Mozambique, Malawi and Botswana combined quantitative and qualitative data collection methods to develop a deeper understanding of girls’ vulnerability, evaluate the initiative and disseminate and discuss results with communities and national and international partners.